September 8

Shariah Law And What Version Taliban Likely To Implement

Shariah Law And What Version Taliban Likely To Implement

The world is still reeling from the Taliban rapid takeover of Afghanistan. Afghans, particularly women, are wondering what the future holds for their country. A Taliban spokesperson stated that the Taliban would not discriminate against women. He would grant them their rights within shariah.

The Taliban’s moderate messages give the impression that they may have changed. We can get a good idea of their likely implementation of shariah from their track record since the 1990s, as well as their interpretation of Islam and the events of the past 20 years.

What Taliban to Shariah? How Did It Get Start?

Shariah in Arabic literally means the path to a watering supply. It was use to refer to a unique legal system that based on Islam’s sources.

In 622, Prophet Muhammad founded the first Muslim community in Medina. It was clear that a better legal system was need than the primitive customs of the tribal Arabian Peninsula. The foundations of Shariah laid by the revelations of the Quran, and Prophet Muhammad’s own reforms.

The Prophet’s legal approach was progressive and reasonable for his time. Prophet Muhammad’s wife Ai’sha stated that whenever faced with a problem relating to people, he would always choose an easier option and never take revenge. This is an important fact for the Taliban to remember.

A common legal system was essential as Islam expanded rapidly from Spain to India in the seventh century. Instead of trying to replicate the Persian and Roman legal systems, caliphs built a complex and detailed legal system based on the Quran and Prophet Muhammad.

Identified By Taliban Scholars

Higher objectives were identify by scholars. The highest objective of law was identify by Abu Ishaq al-Shatibi, a prominent Muslim jurist. To promote goodness and benefit humanity and to protect them against evil, harm, and subsequent suffering.

Five basic human rights were identify by Muslim jurists. They are the right to life and property, freedom from religion, freedom to think including speech, and the right to start a family. These individual rights could not be violate by sultans or caliphs.

In the Muslim world, legal pluralism was also practice. Many schools of law, which were develope over many centuries, were implement in large parts of the Muslim world. Five of these schools survived. Hanafi Maliki, Shafi’i Hanbali, Hanbali, and Jafari. The Sunnis have the other schools, while Shiites Muslims use the last.

From the eighth century to the 17th, Shariah was the most developed and sophisticated legal system in the world. It was the common legal code for all the Muslim lands and peoples that were characterize by geographic, cultural, and religious diversity.

Why Is Shariah Appearing Backwards In Today’s World?

Then why does Islamic law seem to have a medieval flavour and look backwards when it’s being apply in modern times? Five main reasons.

First, Muslim scholars announced the closing of the gate to ijtihad (legislation), beginning in the 11th century. They discouraged any new legal interpretation. From the 11th to the 14th century, this was the time of the Crusades and Mongol invasions of Muslim heartlands. With so many crises, it was not the right time to create new interpretations. Scholars argue that Islamic law was well-develope.

Second, the European colonization of most of the Muslim world in the 19th century led to the collapse of religious, political and legal institutions. Muslim scholars and leaders were too busy with modernity and defending conservative societies, so they did not have the time to create Islamic law.

The third was that Muslim countries gained their freedom, mainly after the second World War, and began nation-building. Most of the political leaders were secular modernists who wanted to modernize and westernize their countries. Their vision did not include Shariah. For example, the new Republic of Turkey used direct translations of Swiss civil codes to replace Shariah.

Muslim Taliban Scholarship

Fourth, the historical position of Muslim scholarship has changed. The rich endowments of religious institutions that were owned by secular nations have been nationalized by newly established secular states. Fear of opposition and dissent, Muslim scholars were persecuted. The Islamic scholarship was reduced in size to a tiny, poorly funded university faculty. Talented Muslims chose other professions than Islamic law.

This results in a significant loss of scholarship and at least 150 years of insufficient practical development in Islamic law. In its Majalla civil code project, the Ottoman Empire made the last attempt to integrate Islamic law and a modern legislative framework. Majalla was completed in 1876 and consisted of 16 volumes with 1,851 articles. The world has changed drastically since then without any adequate Islamic law response.

The fifth factor is the influence that puritanical Salafism has on jihadist groups like Al-Qaeda, Taliban, and Islamic State. These groups ignored the extensive Shariah legal literature and scholarship, as well as historical experience. They selectively interpreted and applied certain Quranic verses, prophetic traditions and Islamic law.

When compared with other legal systems, Islamic law seems relatively undeveloped. It was simply not able to evolve in the modern age.

September 8

The Bars Uni Students Interact On A Campus

The Bars Uni Students Interact On A Campus

A university bars is more than a place to study. It is also where people meet other people, forging new friendships that will last a lifetime.

Our research published online in Computers in Human Behavior found that students do not always mix with people outside of their study area or cultural cliques.

However, this could change if universities support social networks that encourage interaction and greater diversity among students.

Student Bars Organizations

Many universities are proud to have active societies and clubs that organize social events for students. These societies often keep track of who takes part in their activities.

It is becoming more common to analyze data from online interactions via social media on campus. However, students are not using data from their face-to-face social activities.

Our study analysed tens of thousand of anonymised records collected by societies at the University of Sydney in order to discover how and where students socialize.

To visualize the data, we use heat maps. Below is a diagram that shows which areas are most popular for students to socialise on campus.

This map does not represent a geographic map, but it does reflect the location of events. Distance between two locations is proportional to how many students like to socialise at both places.

The two bars Manning and Herman’s, located in the hot centre of social activity at this university, are on opposite sides of campus. However, they are close together in this diagram due to the fact that they attract the same type of students.

Three main social activities are evident, which correspond to three main cliques.

Bars

Many students enjoy spending time together at bars around campus. This evident by the two red-colour bars.

These two bars account for 10% of the students’ social activities as recorded in the data. Students visit these bars almost 3,500 times per year for society events.

Engineering

A separate group of students can observed who socialize in and around engineering faculty facilities.

The Peter Nicol Russ Building (PNR) is located in the heart the engineering precinct. It was design to be a large-scale teaching area, but it also serves as the home for the most popular social events like Free Pizzas.

Engineering societies are often associate with students who socialize around the building or on the lawns. These activities are often centre on drinking and barbecues, and less often attended than by engineers.

Students who members of engineering societies are less likely than others to attend events that are not relate to engineering (even though they may be held on campus).

Previous attempts by social scientists to explain the seemingly distinct culture of engineering have failed. Some blamed a particular mindset among students who are attracted to technical fields.

International Students Bars

This third large group of students meets mainly in facilities for international students. They are often affiliated with societies that cater to students from Asian countries.

This cluster hosts many events that focus on the cuisine from the student’s home country. This group is the only one that tends to have events that are non-alcoholic.

While alcohol can bring many students together it seems to drive away others who organize their own events and don’t drink.

Students From Abroad Vs Domestic

An in-depth analysis has revealed that there is a significant gap between the networks of domestic and international students.

In recent years, Australia has seen an increase in international students. Anyone who is preparing to work in a multi-cultural environment or for a career in international affairs can benefit from the education of students from different backgrounds.

Australian universities also have international students as a major source of income. However, our study shows that there is concern over the inclusion of international students to our campuses.

Chopsticks Australia-Chinese Cultural Appreciation Society and WASABI Japanese Cultural Society, for example, are the largest and most active student societies on campus. These societies interact a lot in the international student cluster.

International students seem to enjoy socializing with international students from other countries, regardless of their nationality. However, a smaller number of international students participate in local events.

An example: A Taiwanese Student Association member is eight times more likely to take part in Oktoberfest, a German-themed beer festival than a member of an engineering society.

The map below shows the disconnect between domestic and international students. While the International Students’ Lounge is a popular social activity center, it is quite isolated from other locations.

International students who feel at ease around only other international students miss out on valuable friendship opportunities with local students.

September 8

Hell-Bent On Destruction Poisoned Sanity In A World

Hell-Bent On Destruction Poisoned Sanity In A World

According to The Parable of the Poisoned Well a once great king ruled over a great town. He was revere for his wisdom, but fear for the power he possessed. The city’s heart was home to a well. Its waters were pure and clean, and the water was where the king and the rest of the residents drank. One evening, an enemy entered the city to poison the well with a strange fluid. All who drank it became insane.

The water drunk by all the people, except the king. He had been warn by a watchman about the dangers of drinking the water. People began to shout, The King is mad and has lost all his reason. You can see how bizarrely he behaves. He cannot rule us, therefore he must be remove.

Fearful of revolution, the king sensed that his subjects were about to revolt against him. He order that a royal glass filled from the well one evening and enjoy a deep drink. There was great joy among the people when their beloved king finally recovered his wisdom and sanity.

Psychoanalyst Erich Fromm

Psychoanalyst Erich Fromm, who wrote The Sane Society in 1955, suggests that there is nothing more common than the assumption we, those living in advanced industrial economies, are perfectly sane. The Department of Health in Australia reports that nearly half of Australians between 16 and 85 will suffer from a mental disorder at one time or another.

Fromm suggests that we tend to view incidents of mental illness in isolation as isolated disorders. However, it is possible to acknowledge with some discomfort that these incidents could occur in a society that is suppose to be sane. Fromm continues to haunt our self-image today, trying to dispel these preconceptions of sanity.

Can we really be sure we aren’t deceiving our selves? Many inmates of insane asylums believe that everyone else is insane, but they are not.

The Anthropocene a time when the distinction between sanity or insanity being erode and our civilisation will lost.

Over Time, The Line Changes Poisoned

Since Michel Foucault’s Madness and Civilization (1961), we have known that the concept of insanity is a socially construct and evolving category. The medical validity of mental health treatments and diagnoses changes with time. What was consider sane one era may become unscientific in the next.

This can mask the fact that once healthy social habits or thought patterns may now be consider unhealthy. This can be applied to specific cases but it shouldn’t apply to the whole society. Without being conscious of its own degeneration, a society could go insane.

Foucault is a powerful tool for understanding how power shapes knowledge. You don’t have to be a conspiracy theorist. Profits and economic growth may be the best indicators of success in society. However, members of insane societies may choose to blindly look into their subconscious culture rather than wilful blindness.

Pointing To This Thesis Poisoned

If society isn’t sane, I feel like pointing to this thesis. Another question follows. What would sanity look and act like in an insane world.

These questions are not for me as a mental health expert or trained person. I am simply an ordinary member in late-stage capitalist society who is suffering in his own way, trying to understand the mental burdens that come with our ecologically inequitable civilisation. I do not comment on the biophysical causes of mental illness such as chemical imbalances and physical injury.

Instead, I consider, at a macro level, the sanity and insanity poisoned the dominant culture, political economy, and capitalist society in which we live, and ask how it can affect our inner lives poker pelangi.

Following Fromm’s example, I am interest in what Fromm calls collective neuroses as well as the pathology that is normal. Collective neuroses, while not easy to observe, essential because they part of the background fabric and can be easily overlooked.